Putrajaya Lake & Wetland
The Putrajaya constructed wetland system comprises of five arms with 23 cells as described in Figure 1. All the arms (except of Upper Bisa) eventually discharge to the Central Wetland, which make the 24 cells in all, before the water flows down into the Putrajaya Lake. They straddle the water courses of Sungai Chuau, Sungai Bisa and three tributaries. A series of rockfilled weirs was constructed along the five arms of the wetland to divide the 24 cells. Although all the five arms are connected, they differ in size, depths, plant communities and pollutant loads that it is designed to handle.
The basic processes happening in the cell zones are illustrated in Figure 2. Typical longitudinal cross-section and typical layout of a wetland cell are shown in Figure 3 and Figure 4 respectively.
The design features a multi-cell multi-stage system with flood retention capability to maximize the space available for colonisation by water plants. The roles of the plants are to intercept pollutants and to provide a root zone where bacteria and microorganisms can flourish to assist in filtering and removing water pollutants.
The Putrajaya Wetland cells and its structural components are the keys to the functioning of the wetlands for cleansing the river water. They are important in maintaining the broader ‘functional capacity’ and objectives of the wetlands, which include providing a habitat for local fauna, primarily mammals, water birds, reptiles, amphibians, fish and invertebrates; hydrological modification (by providing flood detention area and reducing peak discharges and flow velocities) and recreation (the wetlands are used for both passive and active recreation, and parkland for aesthetic and recreational value).
Principal features of Putrajaya Wetlands (Area in hectares)
Weirs & Islands
Zone of Intermittent Inundation
The Putrajaya Lake
The lake is at the southern part of the wetland. About 60% of the lake water flow from the wetland and the remaining 40% is the direct discharge from bordering promenade. The 20 m width promenade is the buffer feature along the lake shorelines. The water surface area of the whole lake is about 400 hectares. The total volume of the whole lake water is about 23.5 million cubic meters and the water depth is in the range of 3 to 14 meters. The lake has been planned to cater for multi-functional uses, including recreation, fishing, water sports and water transport. The lake and its foreshores also form Putrajaya’s most popular resource for informal recreation as a waterfront city.
The principle features of the lake are shown below.
Principal features of Putrajaya Lake
Average Catchments Inflow
Average Retention Time
RL 21.00 M
(4 K M2 )
23.50 mil. M3
200 million liters